Names of Zahiri Scholars

While anyone who rejects ruling by Qiyās [analogical derivation] and other manmade principles could be added to this list, these are some of those who became known for adhering to the zahir [apparent meaning] of the revelation and who taught this understanding. To proceed:

Dawud: Dawud ibn ‘Ali ibn Khalaf al-Asbahani Abū Sulaiman al-Baghdadi az-Zahiri; the imam [leader; scholastic leader], the hafiz [preserver, of narrations], the faqih [jurist], the mujtahid [diligent]; learned from Ishaq ibn Rahawaih and Abū Thaur; born in 200; died in 270.

Ibn Abi ‘Asim: Ahmad ibn ‘Amr ibn Abi ‘Asim ash-Shaibani Abū Bakr al-Basri al-Asbahani; the qadi [judicial authority], the imam, the hafiz, the muhaddith [narrator], the zahid [ascetic]; wrote many books and compilations; born in 206; died in 287.

Ibn az-Zahiri: Muḥammad ibn Dawud ibn ‘Ali al-Asbahani Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi; the imam, the faqih, the intelligent, the adib [refined; literary scholar], the poet; known as “Ibn az-Zahiri”; wrote “Kitab az-Zahrah”; learned from his father; died in 299 at the age of 42.

Ruwaim: Ruwaim ibn Ahmad ibn Ruwaim ibn Yazid ash-Shaibani Abū Muḥammad or Abū al-Hasan al-Baghdadi; the qadi, the sufi [ascetic, pious, devoted], the faqih, the trusted; wrote “Ghalat al-Wajidin”; learned from Dawud; died in 303.

Al-Qasani: Muḥammad ibn Ishaq al-Qasani Abū Bakr az-Zahiri; learned from Dawud.

Ar-Raqi: Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ubaid; ar-Raqi Abū Sa’id an-Nahrabani; wrote “Ibtal al-Qiyās”.

Ar-Radi’: Muḥammad ibn ‘Ubaid Allāh ibn Khalaf; known as “ar-Radi’”.

Niftawaih: Ibrahim ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Arafah al-Azdi al-’Ataki Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Wasiti al-Baghdadi; known as “Niftawaih”; the imam, the nahawi [grammarian], the faqih; wrote some books; learned from Dawud and Ibn az-Zahiri; born in 244; died in 323.

Ibn al-Mughlis: ‘Abd Allāh ibn Ahmad ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Mughlis Abū al-Hasan al-Baghdadi ad-Dawudi az-Zahiri; the imam, the faqih; learned from Ibn Dawud; wrote “Kitab al-Mudih”; died in 324.

Ibn Sa’id: Mundhir ibn Sa’id al-Kazni Abū al-Hakam al-Baluti al-Qurtubi al-Andalusi; the state qadi, the faqih, the adib, the khatib [eloquent speaker; sermonizer]; born in 265; died in 355.

Abū Nasr: Yusuf ibn ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad ibn Yusuf ibn Ya’qub ibn Isma’il ibn Hammad ibn Zaid al-Azdi Abū Nasr al-Baghdadi ad-Dawudi az-Zahiri; the state judge, son of the state judge, son of the state judge; born in 305; died in 356.

Haidarah: Haidarah ibn ‘Umar ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Khattab as-Saghani Abū al-Hasan or Abū al-Qasim az-Zandawardi ad-Dawudi; the faqih; learned from Ibn al-Mughlis; died in 358.

Ash-Sha’ar: Ahmad ibn Bandar ibn Ishaq ash-Sha’ar Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Asbahani az-Zahiri; the hafiz; learned from Ibn Abi ‘Asim; died in 359.

Ibn Ukht Walid: ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Ukht Walid al-Misri; the qadi; learned from Ibn al-Mughlis.

Ibn Khalid: ‘Ali ibn Khalid al-Basri; the faqih; learned from Ibn al-Mughlis.

Al-Barmaki: ‘Ali ibn Bandar ibn Isma’il ibn Musa ibn Yahya ibn Khalid ibn Barmak al-Barmaki al-Baghdadi; learned from Ibn al-Mughlis.

‘Ali ibn Muḥammad: ‘Ali ibn Muḥammad al-Mansuri al-Baghdadi maula [freed slave; patron; client] of Muḥammad ibn Salih al-Mansuri.

Abū al-’Abbas: Ahmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Salih ibn ‘Abd Rabbih Abū al-’Abbas al-Mansuri; the imam, the qadi; wrote “Kitab an-Nir”; learned from ‘Ali ibn Muḥammad.

Bishr: Bishr ibn al-Husain Abū Sa’id ash-Shirazi az-Zahiri; the faqih, the qadi of Persia and Iraq; learned from ‘Ali ibn Muḥammad; died in 376.

Abū al-Hasan al-Kharazi: ‘Abd al-’Aziz ibn Ahmad al-Kharazi or al-Khuzi Abū al-Hasan al-Baghdadi; the imam, the qadi; learned from Bishr ibn al-Husain; died in 391.

Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi: Muḥammad ibn ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad ibn Isma’il ibn ‘Ubaid Allāh ibn al-Akhdar Abū Bakr al-Baghdadi; the qadi; learned from Abū al-Hasan al-Kharazi.

Abū ‘Ali ad-Dawudi: Abū ‘Ali ad-Dawudi’ al-Fairuzabadi; the qadi.

Abū al-Faraj al-Fami: ‘Abd al-Wahhab ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn Muḥammad al-Fami Abū al-Faraj ash-Shirazi; the qadi; learned from Bishr ibn al-Husain; died in 414.

Abū Bakr al-Muqri: Ahmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Isma’il Abū Bakr az-Zahiri; the muqri [cantor; Qur`ān reciter].

Ibn Banan: Muḥammad ibn Banan Abū Bakr.

Yusuf ibn ‘Umar: Yusuf ibn ‘Umar ibn Muḥammad ibn Yusuf Abū Nasr; completed “Kitab al-Ijaz” by Ibn Dawud; died in 356.

Ibn Ḥazm: ‘Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa’id ibn Hazm ibn Ghalib ibn Salih ibn Khalaf al-Yazidi al-Amawi maula of Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan Abū Muḥammad al-Andalusi az-Zahiri; the imam, the hafiz, the wazir [political minister], the faqih, the adib; wrote many books; born in 384; died in 456.

Al-Hamidi: Muḥammad ibn Fatuh ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Fatuh ibn Hamid ibn Batal al-Hamidi Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Mayuraqi al-Andalusi; the imam, the hafiz, the faqih; wrote many books; learned from Ibn Ḥazm; born in 420; died in 488.

Ibn al-Qaisarani: Muḥammad ibn Tahir ibn ‘Ali ibn Ahmad al-Qaisarani ash-Shaibani Abū al-Fadl al-Maqdisi ad-Dawudi; the imam, the hafiz, the sufi; wrote “Safwah at-Tasawwuf”; born in 448; died in 507.

Al-’Abdari: Muḥammad ibn Sa’dun ibn Marja al-’Abdari al-Qurashi Abū ‘Amir al-Mayuraqi al-Andalusi al-Baghdadi; the imam, the hafiz; learned from al-Hamidi; died in 524.

Al-Mansur: Ya’qub ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Abd al-Mumin ibn ‘Ali al-Kumi al-Qaisi Amir al-Muminin Abū Yusuf al-Mansur al-Muwahhidi; the amir [commander, leader] of the Muwahhidin, the mujahid [struggler; soldier for Allāh]; born in 554; died in 595.

Abū ‘Abd Allāh at-Tilimsani: Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Marwan Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Wahrani at-Tilimsani; the faqih, the adib, the state qadi for al-Mansur and his son an-Nasir; died in 601.

Ibn Sayyid an-Nas: Muḥammad ibn Ahmad ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad ibn Yahya ibn Sayyid an-Nas al-Ya’muri Abū Bakr al-Ishbili al-Andalusi; the imam, the hafiz, the khatib, the faqih; wrote some books; born in 557; died in 618.

Ibn Baqi: Ahmad ibn Yazid ibn ‘Abd Ar-Raḥmān ibn Ahmad al-Amawi maula Abū al-Qasim al-Baghawi al-Qurtubi al-Andalusi; the state qadi, the imam, the poet; born in 537; died in 625.

Ibn Duhayyah: ‘Umar ibn al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali ibn Muḥammad al-Kalbi Abū al-Khattab ad-Dani as-Sabti al-Andalusi al-Misri; the qadi, the hafiz, the faqih, the adib; born in 544; died in 633.

Ibn ar-Rumiyah: Ahmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Mufarraj ibn ‘Abd Allāh az-Zuhri al-Amawi maula Abū al-’Abbas al-Ishbili al-Andalusi; the botanist, the herbologist; the hafiz, the naqid [critic; scholar of narrators], the faqih; wrote “al-Hafil”; born in 561; died in 637.

Abū Hayyan: Muḥammad ibn Yusuf ibn ‘Ali ibn Yusuf ibn Hayyan an-Nifzi al-Barbari Athir ad-Din Abū Hayyan al-Jayyani al-Gharanati al-Andalusi al-Misri; the imam, the hafiz, the faqih, the muhaddith [narrator; scholar of narrations], the mufassir [explainer; exegete]; wrote a famous tafsir [explanation; exegesis of the Qur`ān]; born in 654; died in 745.

Ibn al-Burhan: Ahmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Isma’il ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahim ibn Yusuf ibn Shamir at-Taimi Shihab ad-Din Abū Hashim al-Misri az-Zahiri; the imam, the da’i [caller; missionary]; spoke against king Barquq to establish a Qurashi khilafah; born in 754; died in 808.

Abū Turāb al-Zāhirī

Ibn ‘Aqīl al-Zāhirī | Second Link

Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Zāhirī

Taqī al-Dīn al-Hilālī

Muqbil bin Hādī al-Wādi’ī

Dr. ‘Abd al-’Azīz bin ‘Alī al-Ḥarbī

Note: This list is incomplete. We ask Allāh (mighty, majestic) to bless us with the time to complete this list. Amin! And praise belongs to Allāh the Lord of the worlds.

  1. ابن آدم المفكر says:

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

    I would suggest to add the following scholars to the above list:

    Abū Turāb al-Zāhirī
    Ibn ‘Aqīl al-Zāhirī
    Abū ‘Abd Allāh al-Zāhirī
    Taqī al-Dīn al-Hilālī
    Muqbil bin Hādī al-Wādi’ī
    Abū ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Zāhirī
    Dr. ‘Abd al-’Azīz bin ‘Alī al-Ḥarbī

  2. Daniel says:

    Actually, Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri and Abu Abd al-Rahman al-Zahiri are the same person. His full name is:

    Abu Abd al-Rahman Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Aqil al-Zahiri

    A website is being built for him by some young guys in Riyadh with his permission:

    http://www.ibnaqeel.com/magazin/

  3. Abū Ḥassān says:

    To both of the above brothers: Jazak Allahu Khairan. Updated the post per suggestions.

  4. ابن آدم المفكر says:

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

    Website of the Shaykh Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Ibn ʿAqīl al-Ẓāhirī: http://www.ibnaqeel.com/

    And some additional biographical information on the shaykh: http://www.addiriyah.org/tahrer/index.htm

  5. ابن آدم المفكر says:

    السلام عيلكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

    Please add Badīʿ al-Dīn al-Sindī (بديع الدين السندي) to the list, since he seems to have rejected qiyās and used to teach Ibn Ḥazm’s al-Muḥallā in Makkah. He was born in 1342 AH and passed away in 1416 AH, may Allāh have mercy with him.

    More information is to be found here: http://www.ahlu-sunnah.com/threads/42197-Sammelthread-%E1%BA%92%C4%81hir%C4%AB-Fiqh?p=476993&viewfull=1#post476993

  6. Daniel says:

    I was just thinking about Bukhabza and Badaa udDeen! I would also add Zubair Ali Zai, as he also refers to himself as a Zahiri, and like most Ahl e Hadis scholars in India, he says that dalil in usul al fiqh is only three: Quran, Sunnah and Ijma of the Sahaba.

    There are also three more whom I (and others like Muqbil) absolutely consider Zahiri, but others will dispute that: Shawkani, San’ani and Albani. Some on the Zahiri forums will disagree because these three would say that qiyas is allowed if the ‘illa is in the nass, and this is against the principles of ahl al-zahir. But look at this: Ibn Hazm and Muqbil, for example, will say that if the ‘illa is in the nass, then extracting ahkam in furu is not qiyas rather it is from the nass; they all have the same end result, and as Siddeeq Hasan Khan said the disagreement is linguistic. Additionally, Shawkani and Albani both referred to themselves as Zahiris despite what Albani’s students might falsely claim, and San’ani wrote a succint refutation of those who claimed that Umar radiyallahu anhu allowed qiyas. And even if we raise issue about these three saying they allow qiyas if the ‘illa is mansusa, Ibn Aqil and Zubair Ali Zai both use the phrase Qiyas Sahih for that even though they are on Ibn Hazm’s terminology generally, and noone questions their committment to taking at the Zahir meanings; so I think Shawkani, Sanani and Albani should have the same respect as well.

  7. Daniel says:

    Obviously based on my comments, I would include Siddeeq Hasan Khan as well. Even the Arabic Multaqa Ahl alHadith forums, which can be somewhat antagonistic toward us, admit that he was a Zahiri.

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